CBSE Class 12 Exams Previous Year Question Papers with Solutions
For the purpose of fostering competencies in learners, the curriculum encompasses seven major learning areas, which are: Languages, Humanities, Mathematics, Science and Technology, Skill Subjects, General Studies. and Health and Physical Education. These areas are broadly divided into Scholastic and Co-scholastic areas as detailed below:
The curriculum envisages individualized personal learning acumen and seeks to explore the potential of students in acquiring substantial acknowledge and skills through academic rigors. With greater academic orientation and research skills in core academic areas, students would evolve as discerning young adults with a sense of real self-esteem having true values and principles. The scholastic areas are as follows:
- Languages include Hindi, English and other 31 languages. The curricula in languages focus on listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and to develop effective communicative proficiency. Learners use language to comprehend, acquire and communicate ideas.
- Subjects like Geography, History, Economics, Home Science, Sociology, Fine Arts, Political Science, Fashion Studies, and related subjects. promote the learning of history and culture, geographical environment, global institutions, constitutional values and norms, politics, economy, interpersonal and societal interactions, civic responsibilities and the incorporation of the above-mentioned learning. Learners appreciate and value every human's right to feel respected and safe, and, in this regard, also understand their Fundamental Rights and Duties and behave responsibly. Learners learn to be tolerant and empathetic towards others through the study of these subjects.
- Subjects like Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Computer Science, Information Practices help in gaining knowledge about matter and energy, nature, the environment, technology breakthrough in science. The focus is on knowledge and skills to develop a scientific attitude and to use and apply such knowledge for improving the quality of life. This learning can be used to analyze, evaluate, synthesize and create. Learners understand and appreciate the physical, biological and technological world and acquire the knowledge and develop attitude, skills and values to make rational decisions in relation to it.
- Mathematics includes acquiring the concepts related to number sense, operation sense, computation, measurement, geometry, probability and statistics, the skill to calculate and organize and the ability to apply this knowledge and acquired skills in their daily life. It also includes understanding of the principles of reasoning and problem solving. Learners identify, integrate and apply numerical and spatial concepts and techniques. They have clarity of concepts and are able to connect them to the real world. Learners rationalize and reason about pre-defined arrangements, norms and relationships in order to comprehend, decode, validate and develop relevant patterns.
- Subjects like Business Studies, Accountancy, Entrepreneurship, Economics and related subjects help in gaining understanding about core business disciplines. They understand the concept like, the exchange of items of value or products between persons or companies and the meaning / relevance/ Significance of any such exchange of money for a product, service, or information.
- Subjects like Dance, Drama, Music, Heritage Crafts, Fine Arts, Sculpture and related subjects aim to help learners cultivate an interest and appreciation for arts and encourage them to enthusiastically participate in related activities, thus, promoting abilities such as imagination, creativity, value arts, and the cultural heritage.
Co- Scholastic Areas
It is a well-known fact that only a healthy child can learn effectively and good health status leads to better learning. Many other activities are necessary for development of the affective and psychomotor domain. Those activities like games and sport, art and music, craft work etc. are termed as co-scholastic activities. Instead of co-curricular activities, the term co- scholastic activities is used as both cognitive and non-cognitive development can take place by exposing the child to the lesson on scholastic subjects and non-scholastic subjects. General Studies, Health and Physical Education( Work Education has been subsumed) , Yoga, traditional games, indigenous sports, NCC, Scouts and Guides, Martial Arts etc. shall be integral part of the curriculum and shall be in the routine of the schools for the holistic development of children as per the specific details given below:
Health and Physical Education focuses on holistic development, both mental and physical, understanding the importance of physical fitness, health, well-being and the factors that contribute to them. Focus of this area is on helping learners develop a positive attitude and commitment to lifelong, healthy active living and the capacity to live satisfying, productive lives with the help of health management, indigenous sports, yoga, NCC, self-defense, fitness and lifestyle choices.
These learning areas are to be integrated with each other in terms of knowledge, skills (life and livelihood), comprehension, values and attitudes. Learners should get opportunities to think laterally, critically, identify opportunity, challenge their potential and be open to challenges. Learners value and engage in practices that promote physical, cognitive, emotional and social development and wellbeing. This enables learners to connect different areas of knowledge, application and values with their own lives and the world around them. The holistic nature of human learning and knowledge should be brought forth throughout.
The details of Health and Physical Education and General Studies are enclosed separately
General Studies: The purpose of orienting students to General Studies is to develop in them an appreciation for the holistic nature of knowledge. In contemporary times, familiarity with General Studies is indispensable because at the senior school stage there is an element of specialization due to which the students do not get exposed to some vital disciplines/areas of study that are not covered in their specialized field. The whole course of General Studies is, therefore, focused on proper development of the ‘affective domain’ by exposing the students to varied domains of study
Assessment Scheme for CBSE Class 12 Students
|CBSE Class 12 Grading Scheme|
|A-1||Top 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|A-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|B-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|B-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|C-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|C-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|D-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|D-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
- Minor variations in proportion of candidates to adjust ties will be made.
- In case of a tie, all the students getting the same score ,will get the same grade. If the number of students at a score point need to be divided into two segments, the smaller segment will go with the larger.
- Method of grading will be used in subjects where the number of candidates who have passed is more than 500.
- In respect of subjects where total number of candidates passing as subject is less than 500, the grading would be adopted on the pattern of grading and distribution in other similar subjects.